Elijah Series: Becoming a Person God Uses Greatly Pt. 3


Becoming a Person God Uses Greatly Pt. 3

Elijah the Tishbite, from Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, “As certainly as the Lord God of Israel lives (whom I serve), there will be no dew or rain in the years ahead unless I give the command.”

1 Kings 17:1 (NET)

What are characteristics of the person God uses greatly? As we consider Elijah and his powerful ministry, we can discern common characteristics of those God has used throughout history. The first characteristic we considered is the fact that Elijah was a common man. He was from a small town in Gilead, which was a mountainous region. He would have lacked the education of those from a big city. He wore clothes which represented his rugged upbringing. Scripture says he wore a garment of animal hair with a belt (2 Kgs 1:8). He probably had an accent. Because of his country upbringing, those from the city would have looked down upon him. He was common; however, God has delighted to use people like this throughout history (1 Cor 1:26-31). The Bible is full of stories of God greatly using farmers, shepherds, and others who would have not been highly esteemed in society. Why? Because God’s power is made perfect in weakness (2 Cor 12:9), in people who will trust in him instead of their strength, riches, or education. The apostles were common men who lacked formal rabbinical training (Acts 4:13). When God does use somebody of great standing in society like Moses or Paul, he often makes them weak through their circumstances, so they can become humble and rely on God (Jam 4:10).

Why does God use so few people in the church? No doubt, it’s because we are too strong, too independent, and we need to become more humble and dependent so God can use us. Christ taught, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them” (Matt 5:3). In Matthew 18:4, he taught that the greatest in the kingdom are like little children—totally dependent on God.

The second characteristic we observed about Elijah was his righteousness. We see this in the fact that he stood up against Ahab who was leading Israel away from God, but we also see it in his name. His name meant “My God is Yahweh.” Elijah’s parents no doubt raised him to be a godly man, and when all Israel was turning away from Yahweh to follow Baal and his corrupt practices, Elijah lived out his name. When God looks for someone to use greatly, he finds a righteous person. In James 5:17, in using Elijah as an example, James said, “The prayer of a righteous person has great effectiveness.” God hears the prayers of the righteous and he uses them to transform families, communities, cities, and nations.

The third characteristic is that God uses those who are courageous—meaning they are willing to confront their fears and not be hindered by them. Elijah boldly confronted the king which could lead to his death, and he also confronted the demonic deity, Baal, whom Israel was worshiping. When he said it would not rain, it was a direct challenge to this false deity, who was the god of the storm, his prophets, and worshipers. Elijah was courageous, and we must be as well.

What are other characteristics of those God uses greatly. We’ll consider two more, so we can we can become people that God can use greatly in our dark and divided times.

God Uses Those Devoted to His Word

Elijah the Tishbite, from Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, “As certainly as the Lord God of Israel lives (whom I serve), there will be no dew or rain in the years ahead unless I give the command.”

1 Kings 17:1

The next characteristic of those God uses greatly is that he uses those devoted to his Word. How can we discern that Elijah was devoted to God’s Word from 1 Kings 17:1? It is very clear by what he proclaims to the King Ahab. When he says that there will be no dew or rain, he is simply saying what God promised to Israel as a discipline for worshipping false gods. Deuteronomy 11:16-17 says,

Make sure you do not turn away to serve and worship other gods! Then the anger of the Lord will erupt against you and he will close up the sky so that it does not rain. The land will not yield its produce, and you will soon be removed from the good land that the Lord is about to give you.

The main message of the prophets was calling Israel back to God’s Word. The book of Deuteronomy is actually written in the form of an ancient covenant called a suzerain covenant. In those days, a small nation would approach a great king for protection in exchange for obedience, yearly crops, and taxes, among other things. The contract had both blessings and curses—blessings if they kept the contract and curses if they didn’t. That’s exactly what we see in Deuteronomy. If Israel obeyed God, he would bless them: provide rain, protection, and wealth. God’s plan was to bless Israel and through blessing them draw all the nations unto him. Like God’s covenant with Abraham, God would bless them, and they would be a blessing (cf. Gen 12:2). But, as mentioned, this covenant included covenant curses. One of the curses was if they started to worship false deities like Baal, then God would shut the heavens and make it not rain on the land. They would experience extreme drought and famine: the cattle would die, the commerce would fail, and consequently, people would suffer and die because of their disobedience.

By what Elijah proclaims over Israel, it is very clear that Elijah was a man of faith in God’s Word. He probably was studying God’s Word one day and responded in prayer to God: “Lord, your people has fallen away from you. They are worshipping Baal and other false gods. Fulfill your covenant promise by disciplining them and turning them back to you!” It was probably then that God put his message and declaration in Elijah’s heart that there would be a severe drought.

Daniel

We saw this same thing with Daniel. In Daniel 9:2, Daniel was reading the book of Jeremiah where it says that Israel’s exile would only last 70 years. Israel was exiled to Babylon for their false worship and disobedience to the covenant. Daniel’s time in the Word prompted him to prayer and from that prayer God gave him a vision about Israel. Daniel 9:2-3 says:

in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, came to understand from the sacred books that, according to the word of the LORD disclosed to the prophet Jeremiah, the years for the fulfilling of the desolation of Jerusalem were seventy in number. So I turned my attention to the Lord God to implore him by prayer and requests, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes.

Daniel was a prophet just like Elijah. How did Daniel know to pray for the restoration of Israel to the land? He prayed for it because he saw it in God’s Word. After his prayer, God sent Daniel an angel to give him a specific vision about the restoration of Israel and its future (Dan 9:20-27). This is probably what happened with Elijah as well. Prophets were men and women of God’s Word. They went through the land proclaiming the Mosaic covenant and calling the people to repent for breaking it. In obedience to God, they proclaimed both the covenant promises and curses.

Application

How can we apply this reality? There are several things we can take from observing the devotion of prophets, like Elijah, to God’s Word.

1. In considering the devotion of the prophets to God’s Word, we should constantly read God’s Word and pray it in response.

Not only should this apply to doctrinal and practical teachings in Scripture but also prophecy. Though Scripture promises Christ will return to the earth in glory, we should pray, “Come, Lord Jesus!” (Rev 22:20). Though Scripture promises God will establish his kingdom on the earth, we should pray for it, as in the Lord’s Prayer, “May your kingdom come!” (Matt 6:10). When reading prophecies about Israel, the gospel spreading to all nations, etc., it should prompt us to declare it and pray for it in faith. That’s essentially what prophets like Elijah and Daniel did; they prayed in response to God’s teachings and promises.

Many Christians when reading Scripture only mentally affirm it, but don’t pray it. God has chosen to fulfill his plans through the prayers of his saints. Therefore, we should pray as we meditate on his Word. Reading Scripture is how God talks to us, and through prayer, we talk back to him and build his kingdom. This is what people who God uses often do—they study God’s Word and pray it.

2. In considering the devotion of the prophets to God’s Word, we should allow Scripture to prompt and direct our passions and direction in life.

If one is struggling with what do in life or with direction, he or she should spend more time in God’s Word. Apparently, Elijah’s study propelled him into his calling and future ministry.

Likewise, many people have found their passions and callings through time in Scripture. Some have given themselves to the ministry of teaching children in considering Christ’s call for Peter to give special care to the lambs, the baby sheep (John 21:15). Some in studying, especially the Old Testament, have felt a call to pursue law. Micah 6:8 (NIV) says, “He has shown you, O mortal, what is good. And what does the Lord require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.” Others have felt called to adoption or orphan ministry by considering how God is the “a father to the fatherless” in Psalm 68:5, and how God calls caring for orphans and widows a religion he accepts, which pleases him, in James 1:27. Others feel called to work in different forms of government as Romans 13:4 calls government officials “God’s servants”—rewarding the good and punishing the bad. Elijah’s devotion to God’s Word prompted and directed his future ministry, which unfortunately included his suffering alone through a drought away from family and friends (1 Kgs 17:3-6). Scripture should always lead us to application, and at times, it may lead us into our callings long-term.

Just like with the prophets Elijah and Daniel, God often speaks to us when we are in his Word. He gives us wisdom and helps us discern the paths we should take. People, who are not in God’s Word, often don’t hear God speak, and therefore, miss his direction. David said this in Psalm 119:105, Your word is a lamp to walk by, and a light to illumine my path.” David essentially said, “When I was in darkness and couldn’t figure out what I should do next or where I should go, God guided me through the light of his Word. It was then I could see clearly!”

Sadly, many Christians are content to walk in the darkness, as they are not devoted to God’s Word. This darkness brings worry and fear about the past, present, and future. But, God’s Word brings light, clarity, and peace. How can we clearly discern God’s voice as Elijah did? It comes through devotion and faith in God’s Word.

A Common Characteristic of People God uses

As we considered Elijah’s devotion to Scripture, it is clear that this is a common characteristic of those God uses greatly for his kingdom. Let’s consider some of the others God greatly used for his kingdom.

Joshua

Joshua was another one of God’s prophets, someone who met with God and spoke for him. Consider what God said to him about his calling to lead Israel into the promise land:

Make sure you are very strong and brave! Carefully obey all the law my servant Moses charged you to keep! Do not swerve from it to the right or to the left, so that you may be successful in all you do. This law scroll must not leave your lips! You must memorize it day and night so you can carefully obey all that is written in it. Then you will prosper and be successful.

Joshua 1:7-8

Joshua’s success as a military general was attached not as much to his strategy and war plans. It was attached to his daily and personal time in God’s Word and his practice of it. He was called to memorize and meditate on it day and night, to continually speak about it, and practice it. If he did this, he would be prosperous and successful in fulfilling God’s will for his life. No doubt, many Christians are missing God’s best or even failing in their marriage, their ministry, and their careers and it has nothing to do with their competence. It has everything to do with faithfulness to God and his Word.

Are we being faithful to God’s Word? Do we meditate on it? Do we talk about it with our friends, family, and co-workers? Are our lives devoted to obeying it?

How can we be successful as a son, daughter, wife, husband, parent, teacher, professor, businessman, or physician? Success is often a byproduct of our faithfulness to God’s Word.

David

We also see this promise written by David in Psalm 1, as he declares the secret to God’s blessing and favor. Psalm 1:1-3 says,

How blessed is the one who does not follow the advice of the wicked, or stand in the pathway with sinners, or sit in the assembly of scoffers! Instead he finds pleasure in obeying the Lord’s commands; he meditates on his commands day and night. He is like a tree planted by flowing streams; it yields its fruit at the proper time, and its leaves never fall off. He succeeds in everything he attempts.

David essentially said, “I have learned that a common characteristic of those God blesses and uses greatly is that they have a common delight. They delight in God’s Word and, therefore, turn away from sin to meditate on Scripture and obey it all day.”

No doubt, David is probably not only talking about others that he had watched but also himself. In 1 Samuel 18, this word keeps appearing in reference to David, “success” or “successful” (v. 5, 14, 15, 30). First Samuel 18:30 says, “David achieved more success than all of Saul’s servants. His name was held in high esteem.” David was successful at everything he did. After defeating Goliath, he was a given a high rank in the army, probably as a general. But because the people cheered him so much, “Saul has killed his 1000’s but David his 10,000’s,” he was demoted. He was given only 1000 men, but he still prospered. The king tried to kill him by making him take 100 foreskins of the Philistines. However, David took 200 of them instead. Finally, David had to flee the kingdom for his life and become a refugee.

Surely, it was over for David. How can one prosper when the king wants him dead? But all of a sudden 400 other refugees came to him (1 Sam 22), then 200 more—600 in all. These become his mighty men, and he excels as a refugee. It’s a phenomenal story. Why did this happen? No doubt, it’s because God promises to bless those who delight him and meditate on his Word; even their seeming failures lead to success.

Are we people whom God can bless? Have we chosen to never let Scripture depart from our mind and mouth all day long and to practice it in everything we do?

Some, in evaluating themselves, may wonder, “God’s Word is not my delight; how can I make it my delight?” It’s been said that we should “make studying God’s Word our discipline until it becomes our delight.” This is a way to step into the blessing of God. He uses people like David, Joshua, and Elijah who have chosen to delight in and meditate on God’s Word.

What’s another characteristic of the person God uses greatly?

God Uses Those Who Delight to Dwell in His Presence

Elijah the Tishbite, from Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, “As certainly as the Lord God of Israel lives (whom I serve), there will be no dew or rain in the years ahead unless I give the command.”

1 Kings 17:1 (NET)

Another one we can discern from Elijah’s life is that God uses those who delight to dwell in his presence. In verse 1, the NET version says, “the LORD God of Israel lives (whom I serve,” but a more literal translation is “before whom I stand” as in the ESV, NASB, and KJV.

What made Elijah able to boldly oppose evil in his own day? What enabled Elijah to stand alone, by himself, before the King? Elijah saw himself standing in the presence of God, which no doubt encouraged and empowered him. Elijah was a man who dwelled in God’s presence.

When considering people God used greatly throughout Scripture, this is a common characteristic. The narrators of Scripture often take us into the secret place of our biblical heroes—the places where they meet with God.

Moses

With Moses, he met with God on the mountaintop where he took off his shoes before him and received a commission to set Israel free (Ex 3). In Exodus 19, Moses met with God again on the mountain and there received the Ten Commandments. When he left the mountain, his face shined like the glory of God. Later, throughout his narrative, Moses continually met with God at the tabernacle in order to get wisdom to judge the affairs of the people and guide them (cf. Ex 33). God’s glory cloud would come down and meet Moses in the tabernacle.

Joshua

Certainly, this is also seen in the story of Joshua, Moses’ future successor. Exodus 33:9-11 says,

And whenever Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent, and the Lord would speak with Moses. When all the people would see the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people, each one at the entrance of his own tent, would rise and worship. The Lord would speak to Moses face to face, the way a person speaks to a friend. Then Moses would return to the camp, but his servant, Joshua son of Nun, a young man, did not leave the tent.

The narrator, Moses, adds a foreboding little fact about Joshua. Even after Moses left the tabernacle, Joshua stayed, probably right outside of it, until God’s presence left. See, the narrator knew that Joshua was eventually going to lead Israel, and he knew why. Not only was Joshua faithful and obedient, but he also was someone who loved God’s presence. He loved being with God even more than he enjoyed following Moses.

See there are those who primarily go to church because they love the sermons, their pastors, their teachers, their friends, or even simply out of duty. However, for Joshua, it wasn’t that way. He was consumed with the presence of God, even when nobody was not around. His focus was being in the presence of God. God uses those who “stand before him”—those who walk in his presence.

Enoch

We also saw this with Enoch. It was said of Enoch that he walked with God (Gen 5:24). Essentially, being in the presence of God defined him. Genesis also tells us that God took him to heaven, just like he eventually took Elijah to heaven. What many don’t know about Enoch is that he was very similar to Elijah. He was a prophet of God who spoke against the false prophets and evil men of his day. Jude said this about Enoch:

Now Enoch, the seventh in descent beginning with Adam, even prophesied of them, saying, “Look! The Lord is coming with thousands and thousands of his holy ones, to execute judgment on all, and to convict every person of all their thoroughly ungodly deeds that they have committed, and of all the harsh words that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.

Jude 1:14-15

Enoch prophesied about the second coming before the first coming. He spoke of God’s coming judgment.

Elijah and Enoch were very similar. God so enjoyed them that he took them both to heaven before their deaths. They are the only ones recorded in Scripture that experienced this. But one of the things that made them unique and especially used by God was how they enjoyed God’s presence. Enoch walked with God, and so did Elijah.

Noah

This was also true of Noah, who was a great grandson of Enoch. Scripture also says he walked with God—God’s presence defined him. Genesis 6:9 says, “… Noah was a godly man; he was blameless among his contemporaries. He walked with God.” And as we know, though God destroyed the world by a universal flood, he saved Noah and his family through an ark. When the narrator says, Noah “walked with God,” he is telling us why he was so favored—he enjoyed God’s presence and obeyed God.

David

This was also true of David. David said this in Psalm 27:4: “I have asked the Lord for one thing—this is what I desire! I want to live in the Lord’s house all the days of my life, so I can gaze at the splendor of the Lord and contemplate in his temple.” David essentially said, “I want to make my home in God’s presence. I want to dwell at his temple. I want to see God’s beauty—that’s all I want out of life!” That was his one thing—his priority.

Is that our “one” thing? Most have many things that keep them away from God. However, when God finds somebody to use, he finds someone who delights in and enjoys his presence.

Paul

We even see this with Paul. In 2 Timothy 4:17, consider how Paul described his ministry while being tried in court during his Roman imprisonment: “But the Lord stood by me and strengthened me, so that through me the message would be fully proclaimed for all the Gentiles to hear. And so I was delivered from the lion’s mouth!” As he stood before the Romans officials, he sounds like Elijah. God stood beside him to give him strength to preach God’s Word to the Gentiles. In addition, Paul said this:

But these assets I have come to regard as liabilities because of Christ. More than that, I now regard all things as liabilities compared to the far greater value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things—indeed, I regard them as dung!—that I may gain Christ,

Philippians 3:7-8

My aim is to know him, to experience the power of his resurrection, to share in his sufferings, and to be like him in his death, and so, somehow, to attain to the resurrection from the dead.

Philippians 3:10-11

Have you ever strongly felt God’s presence comforting, strengthening, and empowering you for ministry? Those who consistently have often can’t live without it and, therefore, continually seek the experience of it with all their heart. Paul, David, Moses, Joshua, Noah, Enoch, and Elijah made it there one thing. Being with and knowing God was their main passion and pursuit, and it should be ours as well, even more than serving people.

Application

What do people look like who enjoy God’s presence? How can we become like them?

1. People who love God’s presence will typically be found worshiping and praying to him.

Psalm 22:3 (KJV) says, “But thou art holy, O thou that inhabitest the praises of Israel.” God inhabits the praises of his people. At times in Scripture, when God’s people worshiped, God would manifest himself in a powerful way. When Solomon and the Israelites dedicated the temple and worshiped God there, his presence manifest powerfully in temple, so much so the priest could not enter (cf. 1 Chr 7:1-3). Also, in 2 Chronicles 20:20-22, when Jehoshaphat and his army worshipped God as their battle was about to begin, God routed their enemies. Therefore, when people are praising God, thanking him and honoring him, God’s presence often manifests powerfully, even today. And in those places, one can often find the people whom God will used greatly, offering praises amongst the masses.

Is there a worship night or a prayer night? Don’t be surprised to see them there. They are there because they love God’s presence. In addition, you will commonly find these people praying. When people wanted to accuse Daniel, they knew he would be in his room praying daily at a certain time (Dan 6). Prayer is a form of worship. These people commonly offer petitions, thanksgivings, and intercessions to God faithfully.

Are we worshipers?

2. People who love God’s presence often can be found in church, small groups, and various ministries.

Matthew 18:20 says, For where two or three are assembled in my name, I am there among them.” Therefore, you will commonly find these people involved in small groups, prayer meetings, church, and church activities in general. Wherever God’s people are gathered, they will commonly be there because they know that’s where God’s presence manifest.

For many, they feel no need to be in these places. They have other things that they would rather do like sleep, watch movies, hang out with friends, work, etc. But not the ones who love God’s presence. Their reasoning is, “If God is there, why wouldn’t I be?”

3. People who love God’s presence practice holy lifestyles.

Philippians 4:8-9 says,

Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is worthy of respect, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if something is excellent or praiseworthy, think about these things. And what you learned and received and heard and saw in me, do these things. And the God of peace will be with you.

Paul says that when a person thinks on godly things and practice righteousness, they will experience the manifest presence of God. He says, “the God of peace will be with you.”

The person who enjoys God’s presence tries to stay away from ungodly thoughts and ideas, entertainment, and practices. Much of what they avoid is not necessarily sinful, it’s just not pure, lovely, and commendable. They know there are some things that rob them of intimacy in their relationship with God, and therefore, they try to avoid them. Like Joshua they want to be where God’s presence is. Like David, they declare that God’s presence is the one thing they desire. Therefore, they aim to practice a holy life in order to know and experience God more.

Are we walking in holiness, so we can better enjoy God’s presence?

4. People who love God’s presence are humble people.

Consider these Scriptures that show people’s reactions to being in the presence of God and experiencing him:

I said, “Too bad for me! I am destroyed, for my lips are contaminated by sin, and I live among people whose lips are contaminated by sin.

Isaiah 6:5

But when Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying, “Go away from me, Lord, for I am a sinful man!”

Luke 5:8

This saying is trustworthy and deserves full acceptance: “Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners”—and I am the worst of them!

1 Timothy 1:15

Being in God’s presence by necessity reveals our sin and how much we are not like God. Therefore, it produces humility in us. Those who walk in God’s presence cannot but declare: “Woe is me! I am a sinful man—the chief of sinners.” In the same way, those who are not walking in God’s presence commonly are prone towards pride, self-exaltation, and judgmentalism—in part because they are looking at themselves and others instead of God.

Are we growing in humility from being in God’s presence?

5. People who love God’s presence are often broken people.

Psalm 34:18 says, “The Lord is near the brokenhearted; he delivers those who are discouraged.” God is near the broken in heart. He is beside them, comforting, and helping them know him more. However, it should be known that sometimes God allows brokenness so that we can continually experience more of him.

Jacob wrestled with God and was left with a limp—a continual reminder of his dependence upon God. Paul received a thorn in his flesh to keep him from pride from all the revelations he received (2 Cor 12:7-9). It was said of Charles Spurgeon that sometimes he wouldn’t leave his bed for weeks, as he struggled with intense depression. There is a cost for experiencing God and many who know him in an intimate manner know this pain.

There is often a cost to know God intimately. Are we willing to limp forever from wrestling with God? Are we willing to have a thorn in the flesh to know him and his mysteries in a deeper manner?

Those who intimately know God often also know the experience of the limp, the thorn, and the cross. It is these painful experiences that have drawn them to greater intimacy with God. And it is these painful things that keep them dependent upon God. There is a cost for deeper intimacy with God. It is painful, but worth it to be in his presence.

Practical Exhortation

Are we people who enjoy God’s presence? Are we like Joshua, the one who wants to stick around after church is done to worship, pray, fellowship, serve, and study God’s Word more? Many are ready for worship to be done right after it starts. They certainly don’t stay after to serve or fellowship with others. They have their own agendas.

But the worshiper, who loves God’s presence, lingers even after most have left. It’s all about being in God’s presence. When God saw this characteristic with Joshua, no doubt, he said, “This is somebody I can use because he loves me.”

Yes, there may be loneliness and sometimes depression for those whose passion is God’s presence. Elijah was alone by a brook for many months; David was away from his family hiding in a cave. However, even in those seasons, God’s presence was with them and his presence will be with us. He is near the broken hearted and the contrite in spirit. His grace is sufficient for our weakness.

Are you willing to be one God’s uses?

Conclusion

What type of person does God use? James 5:17 gives Elijah as a model, and he is.

1. God uses the common and weak. Are we too strong?

2. God uses the righteous. He hears and answers their prayers.

3. God uses the courageous. We must be willing to confront our fears in order for God to use us.

4. God uses those who are devoted to his Word. He prospers those who meditate on it day and night and never let it depart from their mouths.

5. God uses those who delight in God’s presence. Are we worshipers?

Reflection

1. What stood out most in the sermon and why?

2. How would you describe your time in God’s Word 1-10 and why?

3. Are there any disciplines you have found that help with faithfully studying Scripture? If so, what are they?

4. What are some ways to practice dwelling in God’s presence?

5. What are some common distractions to your time in God’s Word, prayer, and worship in general?

6. How is God challenging you to pursue dwelling in his presence?

7. What other questions or applications did you take from the message?

Prayer Prompts

· Pray that God would draw us more into his Word than ever before—reading, memorizing, praying, and teaching it. Pray that God would make it both our discipline and delight.

· Pray that God would draw us away from sin and worldliness into his presence, and that as we draw near him, he would draw near us in a very tangible and powerful way.

· Pray that God would make us worshipers—people who continually honor him with our thoughts, words, and actions, regardless of our circumstances, whether good or bad.

· Pray that God would make us individually and corporately people he can use greatly for his kingdom.

Featured Posts
Recent Posts
Archive
Search By Tags

FOLLOW ME

  • LinkedIn App Icon
  • Instagram App Icon
  • Facebook Classic
  • Twitter Social Icon

© 2020 by Gregory Brown